Hepatitis is the liver diseases i.e the inflammatory condition of the liver, and which commonly caused by a virus infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol.

 Acute and  chronic  forms of hepatitis exist .Damage to liver  cells resulting from hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis. Hepatitis A is always an acute, short-term disease, while hepatitis B, C, and D are most likely to become ongoing and chronic. Hepatitis E is usually acute but can be particularly dangerous in pregnant women.

Common symptoms of hepatitis

An infectious patients forms of hepatitis that are chronic, like hepatitis B and C, you may not have symptoms in the beginning. Symptoms may not occur until the damage affects liver function.

Signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis appear quickly. They include:

•             loss of appetite

•             pain in the abdominal .

•             pale stool

•             fatigue

•             weight loss

•             dark urine

•             jaundice (yellow eyes and skin)

The types of viral hepatitis

     At least five different viruses can cause hepatitis. Hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV)  virus are the most  common, although the incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) is increasing. They viral causes liver cell injury and necrosis.

Hepatitis A

Causes epidemics  and sporadic cases of hepatitis. Contaminated food, water or shellfish often are responsible for outbreaks of hepatitis A.

What are the symptoms of hepatitis A?

Symptoms include:

•             jaundice

•             abdominal pain

•             nausea

•             low appetite

However, many people do not experience symptoms at all. Those who do usually make a full recovery within a few weeks to several months. After this, they have immunity to it. Children under 6 years do not usually show any symptoms.

How Does Hepatitis A Spread?

Travelers to countries with high infection rates and the inhabitants of those countries are at higher risk for developing hepatitis A. The Centers for Disease Control issues travel advisories that identify  the countries with outbreaks or endemic hepatitis A. Eating raw or uncooked foods increases the risk for hepatitis A. Hepatitis A can be spread from close, personal contact with an infected person, such as through certain types of sexual contact (like oral-anal sex), caring for someone who is ill, or using drugs with others.

Hepatitis A Treatment

No treatment is needed for hepatitis A since the infection almost always resolves on its own. Nausea is common, though transient, and it is important to stay hydrated. It is recommended that strenuous exercise be avoided until the acute illness is over.

Hepatitis B

Virus is usually transmitted by blood transfusion or contaminated needles, but Also may be spread by sexual contact and from an infected  mother go her fetus. Carriers  can  transmit Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) while no symptoms of the disease. Patients with hepatitis B have an increase risk  for liver cancer.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is nearly transmitted by blood and contaminated needles, it often lead to chronic liver disease and is the most common indication for the live transplant.

How Does Hepatitis B Spread?

The hepatitis B virus is spread with the

•             body fluid such as  blood,

•             Sex with an infected partner.

•             Sharing unsterile tribal marks equipment.

•             from an infected mother to her baby during birth.

•             Sharing shape equipment l;ke razor needle.

•             Direct contact with the open sores of an infected person.

NOTE: Hepatitis B virus is not spread through

•             water

•             food,

•             coughing

•             sneezing

•             sharking of hand

•             insect bites

•             sharing eating utensils,

•             kissing , hugging,

•             breastfeeding.

Who is at risk for hepatitis B?

Although anyone can get hepatitis B, some people are at greater risk:

•             People who inject drugs or share needles, syringes, or other drug equipment

•             Sex  with infected  person.

•             Infants born to infected mothers

•             Health care workers exposed to blood on the job.

•             People who live with infected  person.

What are the symptoms of  hepatitis B?

Symptoms of acute hepatitis B, if they appear, can include:

•             Fever

•             Jaundice (yellow color in the skin or the eyes)

•             Loss of appetite

•             Nausea

•             Vomiting

•             Abdominal pain

•             Fatigue that persists for weeks or months

•             Dark urine

•             Joint pain


If you think you’ve been affected with hepatitis B, see your doctor as soon as possible; why ? because  the earlier you get treatment, the better. The vaccine will be given to the effected client and a shot of hepatitis B immune globulin.

Note: This protein boosts your immune system and helps it fight off the infection.


  • Hepatitis B vaccination is advisable to be given to  All newborn infants.
  • Dispose sharp equipment such as needles and syringes to there appropriate boxes.
  • Screening of blood and blood products.
  • Routine screening of transfused blood and blood .
  • Using standard  precautions in healthcare  such as washing  of hand.
  • Avoiding  sharing of razor among people.


HEPATITS C  is an infection caused by a virus that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation, It can cause easy damage to the liver.


The virus is spread by contact with contaminated blood such as:

•             sharing needles

•             sharing  unsterile tattoo and tribal marks equipment.

•             Transfused  of infected blood to another person.

•             By using standard  precautions in healthcare  such as torouly washing  of hand.

•             Sharing of razor among people.


Most people have no symptoms. Those who do develop symptoms may have

•             fatigue,

•             nausea,

•             loss of appetite

•             yellowing of the eyes and skin.


Primary prevention

There is no effective vaccine against hepatitis C, therefore prevention of HCV infection depends upon reducing the risk of exposure to the virus in health-care settings and in higher risk populations, for example, people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men, particularly those infected with HIV or those who are taking pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV.

The following list provides a limited example of primary prevention interventions recommended by WHO:

•             Appropriate and safe use of health care injections;

•             Protective ways of handling and disposal of sharps and waste;

•             provision of comprehensive harm-reduction services to people who inject drugs including sterile injecting equipment and effective treatment of dependence;

•             screening of donated blood for HBV and HCV (as well as HIV and syphilis);

•             training of health personnel;

•             prevention of exposure to blood during sex;

•             hand hygiene, including surgical hand preparation, hand washing and use of gloves; and

•             promotion of correct and consistent use of condoms.

Secondary prevention

For people infected with the hepatitis C virus, WHO recommends:

•             education and counselling on options for care and treatment;

•             immunization with the hepatitis A and B vaccines to prevent coinfection from these hepatitis viruses and to protect their liver;

•             early and appropriate medical management including antiviral therapy; and

•             regular monitoring for early diagnosis of chronic liver disease.

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D, also known as the hepatitis delta virus, and it only occurs and multiply amongst people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus.  HDV is contracted through direct contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D cause  the liver to become inflamed which can later lead to liver cancer  .


Hepatitis D spreads the same way that hepatitis B spreads, through contact with an infected  nfected person’s blood or other body fluids. Contact can occur by

•             sharing  needles and syringe of an infected client.

•             Sharing unsterile tattoo equipment.

•             Not using unprotected sex with an infected person

•             Sharing blade of an infected client.

•             using unsterilized medical or drug equipment.

•             The hepatitis D virus rarely spreads from mother to child during birth.

You can’t get hepatitis D from

•             being coughed on or sneezed on by an infected person

•             drinking water or eating food

•             hugging an infected person

•             shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person

•             sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils

•             sitting next to an infected person.

Symptoms of hepatitis D

People may develop acute hepatitis D, chronic hepatitis D, or both.

The following  are the symptoms  of hepatitis D:

•             fatigue

•             loss of app

•             dark urine

•             lighter stools

•             pain in the upper right abdomen, over the liver

•             nausea

•             vomiting

•             yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)

People with chronic hepatitis D may not notice any symptoms even after years of living with the virus.

Over time, however, they may notice symptoms from complications of the infection, such as severe damage to the liver. Signs and symptoms of liver damage include:

•             fatigue

•             unexplained weight loss

•             weakness

•             itchy skin

•             a swollen abdomen

•             swollen ankles

•             yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes


People with hepatitis D may also require treatment for hepatitis B. The treatment for hepatitis B includes antiviral medication and immune modulating drugs. These help the immune system fight off the virus.

Hepatitis E

The hepatitis E virus is mainly transmitted through drinking water contaminated with water. It can cause your liver to swell up. Hepatitis E is mainly found in areas with poor sanitation and typically results from ingesting fecal matter that contaminates the water supply.

How Does Hepatitis E  Spread?

Most cases of Hepatitis E can be spread by eating food or drinking water that has been in contact with the stool of someone who has the virus.

It can also be spread with poor hygiene such as:

•             Lack of clean water.

•             Poor hand washing.

More rarely, you can also gets Hepatitis E if you eat uncooked meat from infected animals such as pig.

Less often you can get the disease from raw shellfish that comes from tainted water.

What are the symptoms of hepatitis E?

You might not have any. If you do have symptoms, they may start anywhere from 2 to 6 weeks after your infection. They may include:

•             pain in the belly.

•             skin rash or  itching

•             pain in joint.

•             jaundice,(yellowing of the skin)

•             dark urine

•             Not feeling hungry.

•             liver enlargement

•             acute liver failure

•             nausea

•             vomiting

•             fatigue

•             Feeling fever.

Treatment of Hepatitis E

In most cases, hepatitis E goes away on its own in about 4-6 weeks. These steps can help ease your symptoms:

•             Rest don’t overstress. 

•             Eat healthy foods

•             Always be hydrated,i.e Drink lots of water

•             Avoid alcohol

Consult your doctor before you take any medicine ,especially if you’re pregnant.

Chronic Hepatitis

Chronic Hepatitis, is acute or chronic infection of the liver, may lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer ,or liver failure. It may develop with Hepatitis A virus (HBV)  and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections.

General Tips to prevent hepatitis

In rare cases, hepatitis A can be fatal. However, there are safe and effective vaccines that protect against this virus.

Get the vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

Vaccines and immune globulin injections are available to prevent hepatitis A and B


conditions or practices conducive to maintaining health and preventing disease, especially through clean If you’re traveling to a developing country,liness.Practicing good hygiene is one key way to avoid contracting hepatitis A and E. you should avoid  :

•             untreatable water.

•             ice.

•             raw or undercooked shellfish and oysters.

•             raw fruit and vegetables.

Hepatitis B, C, and D contracted through contaminated blood can prevented by:

•             Don’t share sharing razors.

•             Adapt to proper hygiene if you travel to areas with poor sanitation.

•             Hand-washing with soap and water, incase you touch blood.

•             Don’t share needles to take drugs .

•             Don’t share someone else’s toothbrush.

Hepatitis E contracted through contaminated blood can prevented by:

•             Wash your hands with soap and water after you use the bathroom, and before you prepare or eat food.

•             Don’t drink unclean water or use ice.

•             Don’t eat undercooked pork, deer meat, or raw shellfish.

Hepatitis B and C can also be contracted through sexual intercourse and intimate sexual contact. Practicing safe sex by using condoms and dental dams can help decrease the risk of infection. You can find many options available for purchase online.

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